Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies.
Ethnology is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them.
Semiotics is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign processes and meaningful communication.
Structuralism is the methodology that studies elements of human culture in their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Dialectic is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.